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Annotated Bibliography:
Leadership and Management

Sandra Trice Gray has written an important series of articles addressing leadership issues regarding Ethics and Accountability.

Anon. "Leadership Characteristics: Embracing Leadership Characteristics That Count." Association Management 52, No.1. American Society of Association Executives, January 2000.
This article emphasizes the need to change leadership patterns in nonprofit organizations in order to effectively lead an organization into the future. The author quotes Bernard Ross in proposing that nonprofits "throw away the stationary (the old way) and concentrate on five characteristics that lead to successful nonprofit organizations." The article explains the five characteristics and gives a key question on each to get ideas flowing. The five characteristics are as follows: 1) use foresight more than hindsight, 2) practice management by walking outside rather than management by walking around, 3) practice focusing and avoid generalization, 4) value horshin over kaizen (the philosophy of ongoing improvement), and 5) be resilient and let go of stability.

Finigan, Kathleen. "Be an Effective Manager; Develop Leadership Qualities." Small Business Insights, Albany: July 5, 1999.
Finigan defines leadership in an organization as the ability to influence the actions and behavior of others so that organizational goals will be achieved. She goes on to describe the qualities of a leader and explains that leaders are not born they are made. This article emphasizes the need for leaders to work with change and to make fundamental changes in their own attitudes and approaches in order to effectively lead employees. The leader of today must be a facilitator, not an order giver. Leaders must be sensitive to the needs of employees and volunteers because satisfying needs motivate people. A good manager is aware of the reciprocal nature of the manager-subordinate relationship and understands that cooperation by both is a must. Finigan finishes the article by stating success as a manager and a leader can be equated with the amount of personal power you have acquired and continue to acquire.

Nanus, Burt and Dobbs Stephen M. "Leaders who make a difference." Essential Strategies for Meeting the Nonprofit Challenge, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.
Nanus and Dobbs' book is about leading and becoming a leader. It focuses on building organizations and strengthening relationships in nonprofits. They write about how leadership is a challenge in nonprofit organizations and how leaders work for the greater good and what it takes to get started as a leader. They then focus on leaders as visionaries, strategists and agents of change. They identify various roles of leaders such as coaches, politicians and campaigners who maintain finances. They also focus on how leaders make a difference and are held accountable for their actions.

Petrick, Joseph & Scherer, Robert. "Competing Social Responsibility Values and the Functional Roles of Managers." Journal of Managerial Psychology 8, No3. MCB University Press, 1993.
Petrick and Scherer conducted a study on the functional roles of managers in order to determine whether certain kinds of managers possessed a greater sense of social responsibility. One hundred and eleven managers completed The Social Responsibility Survey. Four F-Tests revealed statistically significant differences between different types of managers. Managers with an accounting/finance background showed the least evidence of social responsibility values while general managers had the highest levels of social responsibility values. The results are significant for recruitment and training of managers in a non-profit organizational setting.

Radbourne, Jennifer. "Recruitment and Training of Board Members for the Nineties and Beyond." Journal of Arts Management, 1993.
Radbourne examines boards of directors in order to discover what motivates certain people to become board members and how their qualifications affect the organization. Through research on several arts organizations in Australia, she has discovered that most board members have similar characteristics. Most board members are college-educated males between the ages of forty-five and sixty. The typical board member is recruited through invitation by the chairman of the board and receives no formal training for his appointment. He believes that his general responsibilities include advice and guidance, to oversee finances and business operations, to attend meetings, set policy, and make decisions. The strengths he has include business experience and experience in the arts. Radbourne has suggestions for board improvements. Suggestions include: limiting board service to a maximum of six years, requiring attendance of at least sixty percent of meetings, demonstrating fundamental business talents, and serving on volunteer basis. Radbourne also concludes that boards should reflect the community's cultural diversity.

Slavin, Simon. An Introduction to Human Services Management, New York: Haworth Press, 1985.
Simon Slavin serves as the editor for many different authors in creating this book. He begins with an introduction to nonprofit and human service organizations. He continues with theory, structure and the use of authority by executives. He also covers organizational conflict and change, which will lead to trends in human services management.

Tucci, Linda. "Goldbaum, Michael Aid Nonprofits in Leadership." St. Louis Business Journal, St. Louis: October 4, 1999.
Tucci explains how Richard Goldbaum and Margaret Michael help in the transition of hiring a new executive director. The focus of the article is on the importance of not hiring a new executive too soon. It emphasizes the need to take the time and hire the right person for the job. This is a very critical time for nonprofits and things can easily fall apart. It is explained that when an executive director leaves, the organization is probably facing long-range problems. These need to be addressed before a new director is hired. Some might think that using a staff member as an interim director would be an appropriate solution. This could cause problems because the staff member may not be happy going back to his or her old position once a new executive director is hired. A more workable solution is engaging the assistance of consultants like Goldbaum and Michael who provide temporary interim executives that step in and help organizations get through, until an appropriate new director has been hired.


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