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Annotated Bibliography:
Internal and External Communications

Faust, Mark. "Three Tips for More Powerful Presentations." The Small Business Journal. http://tsbj.com/editorial/03061411.htm Synergy Publishing Ltd. Oct. 20, 2000.
Faust argues that speaking is a skill that is critical to gaining credibility, persuading clients, leading a team, and making more money. He passes on communication effectiveness tips such as facts presented while standing in front of a group have a more powerful affect in persuading others and building consensus than the traditional "across the table" presentation. He explains ways to be a better speaker through stylizing the use of eyes, hands and feet. He encourages an organization's teams to practice on each other, observing, evaluating, and learning from the best presenters.

Herman, Robert D. The Jossey-Bass handbook of nonprofit leadership and management, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994.
Internal communication with the correct process of transmitting to the correct person at the correct time and with using the correct communication vehicle can be a very important tool or skill for a manager within a non-profit organization. Managers need to direct the flow of information that they direct to their superiors and workers. External sourcing and internal communication can be used as a process to communicate and set mission achieving strategies. If a manager can properly communicate with the people surrounding him, he will be able to correctly transmit information that was gathered within or outside the organization to the correct person at the right time. This will make it easier for everyone to realize the mission and achieve their goals efficiently.

Hesselbein, Frances. "When They Look at Us, Can They Find Themselves?" Leader to Leader. No. 11. New York: Drucker Foundation and Jossey-Bass, Inc., Winter 1999.
Hesselbein points to the demographic shifts in America as the most pressing challenge facing organizations today. How managers help stakeholders deal with their deepest differences is greatly influenced by the language used by an organization's management. She explains that staff and clients will perceive demographic changes in the organization and the community as a threat or opportunity based on the vision and language of the management. Therefore, communicating the organization's vision of a diverse future becomes critical to successful change. The leadership of the organization must rework outdated policies and exclusive language to communicate the value of their vision of diversity.

Karpinski, Richard. "At your service: The web tackles nonprofit issues." Internetweek, Issue 690, Nov.17, 1997.
Richard Karpinski examines how community groups use the World Wide Web more prevalently in the nonprofit sector. The Web is another communication tool to help nonprofits further their mission and help those in need. Start up costs for creating an accurate and detailed web site can be expensive. Once community groups are able to find funds they can build web sites that provide information to anyone interested, thus helping the communication process. One of the biggest hurdles for these companies is finding the funding and educating the community on how to access the Internet. Community networks are able to provide low cost Internet access for communities, making them one of the largest user bases in the world. These community-oriented sites, run by nonprofit organizations, receive funding through grants and corporate sponsors. Some examples of funders include the Kellogg Foundation and Apple Computer. Karpinski goes on to list a number of nonprofit organizations that are utilizing the Internet as their major communication vehicle proving they can profit from the Internet and Web technology with community service being their driving force.

Maddalena, Lucille A. A communications manual for nonprofit organizations, New York: N.Y. AMOCO, c1981.
Communication programs can help run NPOs. Without the proper communication channels, information may not be passed on to the correct people. Programs should be established with specific methods of communication in mind. Employees should be assigned to sourcing information for the NPO outside of the organization and directing it to the specific person or people to whom it should go. Information gathered inside the organization that affects the customers of the organization should also be distributed or communicated with the same efficiency used for external sourcing. It is as important for board members to communicate and delegate through the proper channels as it is for an agency manager to properly communicate to his/her staff. Overall, sourcing your information and communicating it through programs that are established is important. All communication programs should be designed within the considerations of mission, effectiveness, and efficiency.

Oehler, John."Open communications helps boards prosper." Business First, Western New York: Vol.16, Issue 34, May 15, 2000.
In this article, John Oehler discusses the importance of open communications in managing nonprofit organizations and the importance of having the right members serving on the board. Boards are finding it more important to continually focus on an organization's mission, by aligning it to the changing needs and demands. If the needs of the consumer are not met, the community will suffer. In order to modify the mission the board must communicate effectively with each other and the public. To remain valuable to the community, the organization should be certain to establish formal processes to insure feedback, self-evaluation, and an outside assessment of performance by a third party. Choosing the proper board members to help fulfill the mission can be a real challenge. Oehler states, "A board member must have personal integrity, be trustworthy, demonstrate ethical behavior and always act in the best interests of the organization rather than pursuing a personal agenda." The article lists potential questions for the board to use in order to assess themselves on a regular basis. To remain most effective, board members should be limited in the number of consecutive terms of service and officers should be changed periodically. Open communication is the key to relationships within the organization and is also important, externally, in delivering its mission through the best available board members.

Ray, Glenn R. "The Business Reason for Respectful Communication." http://www.onbusiness.net/articles_html/Dr.R.GlennRay_817.html
According to Ray, communication can be nonproductive in organizations because many people communicate differently, often misunderstanding each other and sounding downright disrespectful. Each one of us develops our unique verbal and nonverbal style of communicating throughout our lives. As unique as individuals are so are communication styles. Glenn suggests that instead of expecting others to understand us, we need to assume that we will be misunderstood thereby work harder at understanding others and at being understood. He goes on to recommend that we can work harder at understanding each other by improving our listening skills.

Trivers, Andrew. "Communicate Right: An Editorial Interview." Fund Raising Management, Vol.30 Issue 11, Jan 2000.
This article included a detailed interview of the author, Andrew Trivers, by an editor of "Fund Raising Management." George Reis. The article stresses the importance of good communication in nonprofit organizations whether it is by meetings, notes, telephone, email or web sites. Effective communication is the backbone of an organization so that ideas and information can be transferred and understood properly. The communication vehicle should be available to all members or those to whom the information pertains. Communication is important for fund raising, training of volunteers and the overall activities the organization takes part in to achieve its mission. Another huge topic that is often communicated is budget information. Budget issues require continual attention so that the goals of the organization can be matched with available funds. Therefore, it is imperative that members have developed good communication skills and techniques to deliver their messages and remain focused on the goals of the organization.

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